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Arboga Robotmuseum


Robothistoriska Föreningen i Arboga


Sidan uppdaterad: 2013-02-25 20:43







Missile History


V-1 bomb


Navy Test missiles


Air Force Test missiles


Saab Test missiles


Air-to-surface missiles


Ship-to-ship missiles


Coastal missiles


Surface-to-air missiles


Air-to-air missiles


Anti-tank missiles


Target missiles


Submunition dispenser


Missile summary table



V-1 The Flying Bomb


In the mid 1940´s a study of different missile configuration

From 1942 and ahead Hitler claimed repeatedly that the war would be brought to an end by the secret weapons of Germany, against which there would not exist any defense. One of these weapons was The Flying Bomb “V-1”.


V-1 denotes Vergeltungswaffe 1 (V-1 flying bomb).



V1-bomb 2 007

This V-1 bomb is exhibited at the Arboga Missile Museum.


You will find the only specimen in Sweden of the V-1 in our museum . The “flying bomb” was manufactured from 1941 at the aircraft manufacturer, Gerhard Fieseler Werke with the designation Fi 103. The bomb was tested at the Rocket Research Facility at Peenemünde on the isle of Usedom and received the denomination V-1.


During the testing in 1943 at Peenemünde a few bombs without any blasting agent were incidentally lost and ended up in southern Sweden. The different parts of the wrecks were scrutinized rigorously by our experts and some technology was subsequently used in some of our pending projects.


The V-1 bombs were discharged in great numbers from launchers in France and the Netherlands towards cities in England, mainly against targets in London.


The engine was quite a simple pulse-jet engine with an efficiency of only
 2 ­- 3%, and was fitted in an engine pod on top of the main bomb body. The working principle of the pulse-jet engine originates from a 1906 French patent and it refers to this type of engine. It was further developed by Argus Motoren Werke in Berlin during the 1930s. In beginning it was tested in conventional aircraft but was transferred in 1942 to the V-1 program.


The V-1 pulse-jet engine was driven on low-octane gasoline and air. Just inside the air intake was a latticework with no less than 126 non-return valves. When the air-fuel mixture ignited, the combustion pressure closed the valves and the hot combustion gases were forced backwards and created a forward thrust. When the combustion dropped, the valves re-opened again and new air could enter. The combustion cycle (the pulse) was automatically repeated about 45 cycles per second, ignited by the preceding frame. The pulse-jet engine generated a very characteristic, loud pulsating noise.


The bomb was fired from a launch platform.  Along the top side off the 48 meter long access ramp was a tube with an open slit along entire ramp. In the tube there was a piston fitted with a peg, protruding through the slit. Prior to the launch the bomb was attached to this peg.  When the bomb had been placed on the access ramp, the pulse-jet engine was started.  A mixture of hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate generated high pressure steam, forcing the piston and the attached bomb to eject away at a velocity of 350 km/hour. At the end of the access ramp the piston separated from the bomb.


The guidance system was somewhat simple.  A magnet compass kept the bomb on steady direction towards the target and a barometer monitored the altitude. A gyro stabilized the bomb in roll and pitch positions.


The bomb speed was governed by a pressure gauge and a pitot tube, giving the bomb a constant speed of 580 km/h .


The bomb had a small propeller on the nose for measuring the flown distance. As the missile flew, the airflow turned the propeller and at every 30 rotations off the propeller counted down one number on the counter.


The counter was manually preset before the launch to a number of pulses, corresponding to the distance to the target.


When the count reached zero, two detonating bolts were fired and released springs, which acted on the elevator, causing the bomb to dive towards the target. At the same time the fuel supply to the engine was shut off.